Glossary by VidCompare and VideoBloom

.avi - (Audio Video Interleave)- A multimedia container file format developed by Microsoft to allow synchronous audio-with-video playback.

.flv - Flash video file format; used to deliver video over the Internet.

.mov - A video publishing file format developed by Apple for use with their QuickTime video players.

.wmv - (Windows Media Video)- An audio and video file encoded for use with Windows Media Player.


A-Roll - Camera footage that focuses on the main subject of the video. In productions with more than one camera, it refers to footage taken by the primary camera. In news, it refers to video that will become the main focus of the clip, such as that of a person being interviewed.

Ad Overlays - A small, semi-transparent overlay across the screen (usually on the bottom, but can be anywhere) of an online video, similar to what you'll often see during TV shows. These ads usually show up 15 seconds into the videos they're on and last for 10 seconds.

Analog Camera - A camera that takes non-digital video. The term "analog" in video refers to a recording method that stores red, green and blue waves in a fixed number of rows; analog video is generally less crisp in detail than digital video. With modification, an analog camera can shoot digital video.

Artifacting - The occurrence of unwanted visual distortions that appear in a video image, such as cross-color artifacts, jitter, blocking, ghosts, etc. Artifacting is a common side effect of compression, especially at lower bit rates.

Asynchronous Video Delivery - Non-live video transmission. The delivery of a video file that has been previously recorded and stored.

Autoplay - The function of a video player that starts playing a video automatically without the user needing to click any buttons.


B-Roll - Extra video taken to "color" a story, set an overall scene or add visual detail. In productions with more than one news camera, B-roll is taken by the secondary camera. In news, B-roll is edited in with A-roll to prevent visual boredom.

Bandwidth - The amount of information that can be sent through a connection. Usually measured in bits-per-second. A fast modem can move about 57,000 bits in one second. Full-motion full-screen video would require roughly 10,000,000 bits-per-second, depending on compression.

Bit - The smallest unit of storage used in computing; a digit in the binary numeral system it can be 1 or 0.

Bit Rate - The average number of bits that one second of video or audio data will consume.

Boom Microphone - A microphone designed to go on the end of a boom pole (see Boom pole); often used when a videographer does not want a microphone in the shot, but still needs to amplify certain sounds, such as voices.

Boom Pole - A long pole, usually metal, designed to hold a microphone above or to the side of a scene to capture sound but remain out of the visual field.

Buffering Video - A buffer is a temporary holding pen in a computer's memory for data for inputs (e.g., to software) or outputs (e.g., to a printer) until the process can deal with it. Video buffering occurs when a streaming video player saves portions of a streaming video file to local storage for playback.

Bug - An embedded graphic icon or logo used to brand a video program or player.

Byte - A collection of eight bits.


Captions - Text that appears over a video that labels a scene, identifies a location or person, or narrates dialogue onscreen. Captions can be either open or closed. Open captioning is displayed anytime the video is played; closed captioning is not seen unless it is called up by the receiving equipment (ex. Subtitles that can be turned on for different languages).

Clickable Video - Online video that is completely interactive. Viewers can move there cursor over the various objects/people/places etc. in the video and click them to obtain more information or interact in some other way such as making purchase transactions straight from the video itself.

Codec - (COmpressor/ DECompressor) -The technology used to compress an audio and/ or video file for storage or transmission and then decompress for playback.

Companion Ad - An ad that runs alongside or around a video that offers sustained visibility of the sponsor throughout the video experience. These ads are often interactive and allow users to click them to take a desired action either by linking to a site where the actions can take place or directly from the ad itself.

Compression - Reducing the amount of data used to represent video images. A straightforward combination of image compression and motion compression. Compressed video can effectively reduce the bandwidth required to transmit digital video.

Consumer Video Hosting - Online video hosting and sharing sites that allow their users to upload videos, usually free of charge, for viewing by private and public audiences.

Content Delivery Network (CDN) - System of computers networked across the internet for the purpose of delivering content to end users. Each individual system is composed of hundreds-to-thousands of end users allowing networking to be done on a massive scale and making CDN's ideal to market web video content.

Content Delivery Networks - Companies that deliver video streaming to users all over the world.

Content Management System (CMS) - Programs responsible for the creation of a site's framework including image media, audio files, web content, skins, and many others. CMS is a cost effective way of managing a site's content and also functions as a way for businesses to share and archive files as well as other web based content with minimal effort.

Conversion - The operation of changing data from one format to another so the output will be displayed in an appropriate manner for the device. Specifically for video this means the changing a video file, which is present in a special codec, into another video codec (eg Divx to MPEG, MPEG2 to Xvid, etc.).

CPA- (Cost Per Action) - A pricing model that allows marketers to be charged by their publishers only when an agreed upon action is taken by their potential customer such as a sale or registration. This model is also referred to as CPI or Cost Per Interaction.

CPC- (Cost Per Click) - A advertiser's estimation of how much it costs for each click on a given advertisement. This number is obtained by dividing the cost of an ad or marketing endeavor, by the number of clicks on that ad or endeavor generated.

CPM- (Cost Per Thousand Impressions) - A pricing model for online advertising based on impressions or views where the advertiser pays the publisher a predetermined rate for every thousand impressions .

Cue Point - User defined points in the playback of a video when an event is designated to occur. In online video you can use cue points to trigger custom, synchronized functionality, such as animations, synchronized ad units, or closed captions.

Curation - Curation, also known as Media Curation, is a process of adding Human review and approval of aggregated content. Curation provides visitors with content that is contextually relevant, brand and advertiser safe, and therefore provides an enhanced revenue opportunity. Curation is often provided by site editors, or remote reviewers, but in all cases provides a layer of human expertise to content presentation.


Decoding - The decompression or 'un-packaging' of an encoded file for playback or use.

Decompression - The decoding of a compressed video data stream to allow playback.

Delivery - In web based technologies, delivery can be achieved through mobile devices, websites, emails, instant messaging, search engines, and web video marketing.

Digital Camera - A camera that does not take analog video; digital video cameras can capture truer color and more details than analog cameras. Digital cameras frequently use digital video tapes, internal hard drives or memory cards. Digital video is not always high-definition.

DivX - A codec based on MPEG-4 Part 2 developed by DivX, Inc. (not to be confused with an unrelated attempt at a new DVD rental system by Circuit City in the 1990's).

DRM - (Digital Rights Management) - The technology used to control user access to licensed technology.


Embed - Adding an element from one document to another document; in online video this refers to taking video from a online video provider and transplanting it elsewhere on the web (websites, social networking sites, etc.) through the use of HTML code.

Encoding - The compression of a file through the use of a codec to make it easier and smaller to store and transmit.


File Size - The amount of storage space a file takes up. Measured in bytes, kilobytes (1000 bytes), megabytes (1000 kilobytes), gigabytes (1000 megabytes), terabytes (1000 gigabytes), etc.

Flash (Adobe) - Commonly used to create animation, advertisements, various web page components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich internet applications including adding video to websites.

Frame Rate - Number of video frames per second. NTSC television is 30 frames per second. On the Internet, frame rate is dependent upon the bandwidth available and the multimedia format from which the video file is produced.

Frames Per Second (FPS) - Same as frame rate.


Green Screen - A screen placed in a video studio images can be projected onto. Television meteorologists frequently present the weather in front of a green screen or blue screen, and producers place maps over the blue portions of video footage, creating the appearance of the meteorologist standing in front of a large map. If the person standing in front of the screen wears the same color clothing as the screen, the projected images will appear on the person's clothing.


H.264 - Standard of video compression pioneered for the purpose of providing good quality video at half the bit rate allowing a larger market access to high quality video and other advertisements.

Hand-held Microphone - A microphone designed to be held in the hand.

HDV - A relatively inexpensive high-definition video recording format.

High Definition - (HD) - Technically, any video that is of higher resolution than standard definition.

High Definition (HD) - Increased display and resolution usually in terms of pixels, resolution, and aspect ratio for various broadcast signals and appliances such as televisions and DVD players.

Hit - a request for a single file from a web server. Hits are also referred to as a Web Request.

HTML5 - HTML 5 allows the Web browser to become a development platform ensuring interoperability among browsers so that Web applications and documents behave the same way no matter which browser is used to access them. It is a comprehensive application development platform for Web pages that eliminates the need to install third-party browser plug-ins to view video like Adobe Flash.

HTTP Streaming - The default protocol for streaming audio and video over the internet. It involves the simultaneous download and viewing/listening of the file through HTTP. See also Progressive download.

Hyperlinked Video - A video in which specific objects are made selectable by some form of user interface, and the user's interactions with these objects modify the presentation of the video. See also clickable video.


In-stream Advertising - Advertisements that are incorporated into streaming online video. These ads are usually pre-roll (before the video content), mid-roll (during the video content), or post-roll (after the video content).

Internet TV - Television distributed through the internet; users can select from a library of shows online and select the show they want.

Internet Video - See Online video.

IPTV - Internet Protocol Television- television content that is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. It is different from Internet TV in that Internet TV service providers cannot control the final delivery and IPTV service providers can. This allows more content to be available for Internet TV but at a lower quality and less content for IPTV but at a much greater quality. IPTV is often associated with VoD (video on demand).


Keyframe - A position on a video timeline when an event occurs.


Lavaliere Microphone - Also called a "lapel" microphone; a small microphone that clips onto a person's clothing, generally placed within a foot or so of a person's mouth to amplify voice.

Light Kit - A set of lights and related equipment such as tents to focus the light. Light kits vary widely in components and price.

Light Stand - A stand, similar to a tripod, to mount lights.


Media Player - A program that plays back audio or video. Examples include Microsoft Windows Media Player, Apple's QuickTime Player and RealPlayer.

Metadata - Digitized data of any type that can be used to improve a web video’s measurability, and indexing. Most sharing sites allow forms of metadata such as file descriptions consisting of keywords for web videos.

Mid-roll - An advertisement that runs in the middle of an online video presentation.

Midstream Ad - Advertisement user sees while streaming an online video. Ads of this nature are less popular than typical ads and consumers are far less likely to watch them, opting instead to close their browsers.

MiniDV Tape - A small format digital video cassette.

Mobile Video - Media content that can be viewed via a mobile device such as a cell phone, PDA, or game console. Current formats for mobile video are 3GPP, MPEG-4, RTSP, and Flash Lite. Mobile video offers ideal marketing exposure for advertisers.

Monetized Video - Online videos that generate revenue by themselves. This is usually accomplished by advertisements in and around the video content, but can also be accomplished by charging users to watch, download, or subscribe to the videos.

Monopod - A video camera stand that functions similarly to a tripod, but only has one leg.

Motion Graphics - Use of video or animation to create the illusion of movement. Often combined with audio for use in multimedia projects and displayed through electronic media technology such as digital video or digital projection. Though slightly more expensive, motion graphics are far more effective than the Talking Head method of web based advertising.

MPEG-1 - A video compression standard set by the Motion Picture Experts Group. It involves changing only those elements of a video image that actually change from frame to frame and it leaves everything else in the image the same.

MPEG-2 - An older standard format for digital television signals set by the Moving Pictures Expert Group.

MPEG-4 - A more recent standard format than MPEG-2, this format includes most MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 features and also contains support for external digital rights management and interaction.

Multi-title (video) Player - A video player that can play and display multiple videos, see playlist.

Multicast - Communication between a single sender and a select group of multiple receivers on a network, as in sending an e-mail message to a mailing list


Non-Linear Editing - An editing method that allows the editor to access any frame in a video clip with the same ease as any other. This is opposed to linear editing in which analogue video is physically cut and pasted. Non-Linear editing is with digital video and is therefore non destructive to the original video.


Online Video - Any form of digital video that is available for use over the internet.

Online Video Platform (OVP) - An OVP is typically a SaaS (software as a service) solution providing end-to-end tools to manage, publish and measure online video content for both on-demand and live delivery. Typical components of an OVPP include video hosting, encoding, custom players, syndication, analytics, as well as interactivity and monetization through a variety of online advertising options typically 3rd-party ad-servers/networks. Most OVPPs offer scalable product packages for both self-serve SMB publishers up to large media companies.

Over The Top (OTT) - OTT is the distribution of video through a television set that is connected to the Internet as well as a content distribution network like a cable, satellite or telephone company. With OTT, there is another connection through your computer to the Internet that rides "on top" of the existing infrastructure. This means that you can program your TV to receive either the normal television programming from the content distribution network as well as from an Internet site like YouTube.

Overlay Ad - Large advertisements that usually overlay the text of a website. Although they are typically larger than banners, Overlay Ads attract a larger consumer base than Mid-stream Ads.


P2 Card - A type of memory card for a video camera.

Page View - a request to load a single page of an Internet site. On the World Wide Web a page request would result from a web surfer clicking on a link on another HTML page pointing to the page in question. This should be contrasted with a hit, which refers to a request for a file from a web server. There may therefore be many hits per page view. Page Views are also called Page Impressions.

Pay Per View - Normally seen used by television networks and online video publishers, a system in which viewers purchase the private cast of the event. Pay Per View events are seen at a scheduled time.

Player Controls - The buttons and other controls that operate the features and functions of a multimedia player.

Player Skin - The appearance or look and feel of a multimedia player. Advanced skins may be programmed to increase video player functionality, and may include ads.

Playlist - A sequence defining the order in which a collection of video or audio files will be played. For video, a playlist is displayed in a Mulit-title (video) Player.

Podcast - Digital media files distributed over the internet which can be played on portable media devices such as iPods. Through downloading or direct streaming from websites, podcasting can be used to transmit advertisements from the distributor directly into the hands of the consumer.

Pop-up - A web page that displays within a new web browser window. Pop-ups are often used on the internet for advertisements, but they can be used to display any sort of online content such as video.

Post-roll Ad - An advertisement that runs following an online video presentation.

PPC - (Pay Per Click) - Online advertising payment model in which payment is based on qualifying click-throughs. The content publishers get paid a set rate for every click on the advertisers material.

Pre-Roll - To start a tape spinning up to speed before beginning playback or capture to ensure that the operation is synchronized properly.

Pre-roll Ad - An advertisement that runs before an online video presentation.

Production - The use of actors, scripts, graphics, and other architecture under attentive direction used to present a story. Also defined as the act of making products available for use with the most effective form being web video marketing.

Professional Video Hosting - These websites provide online video hosting and sharing for viewing by private and public audiences, similar to consumer video hosting, but at a cost. Accordingly, the video content is of higher quality and the users are given greater control of their videos.

Progressive Download - A technique for downloading Internet video and/or audio clips so that they can be viewed at the same time that they are being transferred to your computer. This provides some of the benefits of streaming media without requiring a special streaming server. See Pseudo Streaming and HTTP Streaming.

Promotional Video - Video content that is designed to promote a company, brand, product, etc. These videos do not generate direct revenue by themselves, but when distributed can increase interest in the promotional object and indirectly boost revenue.

Pseudo Streaming - See Progressive Download and HTTP Streaming.

Pure Streaming - The delivery of media content over the internet without needing to first download the media. The media content is delivered directly to the user through a dedicated streaming server. See Streaming Media.


Quicktime - Computer system software that defines a format for video and audio data, so different applications can open and play synchronized sound and movie files.


RealVideo - A streaming technology developed by RealNetworks for transmitting live video over the Internet. RealVideo uses a variety of data compression algorithms.

Rich Media - Interactive digital media that has been enhanced with audio, video or animation. This term is used the most in internet advertising referring to ad banners that are animated or in some way dynamic.

RSS - Most recently defined as Really Simple Syndication; it refers to the formats used for the syndication of audio, video, and text content through the web.

Rule of Thirds - This rule involves envisioning a tic-tac-toe board on top of a video shot, so the image is divided into nine squares. The videographer should choose one of the four points of line intersection as a focal point. According to Digital Photography School, "The theory is that if you place points of interest in the intersections or along the lines that your photo becomes more balanced and will enable a viewer of the image to interact with it more naturally."


Sampling Rate - The sample rate is the number of samples per second used to store a sound; measured in hertz, Hz, or kilohertz, kHz.

Shotgun Microphone - A microphone that looks in shape somewhat similar to a gun. It only amplifies sound that the microphone directly points toward.

Single-title Video Player - A video player that can only play and display one video.

Skin Ads - Advertisements that appear in a video player skin, i.e. the graphics surrounding where a video plays.

Soft Box - A box that fits around a light that diffuses the light so it appears "soft".

Standard Definition (SD) - Features 480 interlaced lines of vertical picture resolution and a 4:3 aspect ratio. Standard Definition televisions have a lower pixel count than High Definition televisions and are more prone to ghosting, static noises, and poor reception.

Streaming Media - Internet video and/or audio clips that can play directly over the Internet, without needing to be downloaded first onto a computer. Used to view and hear broadcasts, and to interactively play and seek in stored clips. See also Pure Streaming.

Streaming Video - Multimedia that is constantly received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider.

Switcher - A device that allows a video producer to switch between multiple cameras to create a more visually interesting video and reduce editing time if the video is not live. Switching is used in most live television broadcasts.

Syndication - A method of increasing traffic to your website by allowing other users to utilize your content.


Teleprompter - A screen placed in front of a person from which that person can read text while looking directly into the camera. The trademarked name is TelePrompTer.

Three Charge-Coupled Devices - (3CCD) - Camera technology that allows the camera to record red, green and blue light on three separate signals for better video quality.

Ticker - A ticker or crawler is a small screen space dedicated to presenting headlines, promotions and other vital pieces of information.

Timecode - An exact time used to identify a specific frame in a clip or production. Measured in hours, minutes, seconds, and frames.

Tracking - Practice of monitoring web video users in order to collect dimensions of measurability such as the type of content users are viewing, the length of the videos they watch, how long a user watches a video, and how many users a video attracts. An integral part of Web Video Marketing, companies like Google Analytics, TubeMogul, Visible Measures, and Brightcove use embedded media programs such as Adobe FLASH to monitor web video viewer activity.

Transcoding - See Conversion

Tripod - A three-legged stand for a camera to prevent unwanted movement.


User Generated Content (UGC) - Media content submitted by users that may be publicly available to the consumer audience. UGC consists of video, podcasts, and other social media that adds backlinks to sites allowing for social networking and increased traffic.


Variable Bit Rate (VBR) - A way of coding video to maximize image quality over a connection's available bandwidth, usually provided by more recent codecs.

Video Ad - An ad in which the advertising message is delivered through video.

Video Ad Serving Template (VAST) - VAST is an online video standard which is a pre-determined XML format allowing video players (that support the standard) to understand the elements of a video ad request (such as video file URL, click through URL, third party ad tracking pixels, length of video ad, etc.) and use that information to properly display and handle the ad.

Video API - Video Application Program Interface- An API is an interface for letting a program communicate with another program. For example VideoBloom offers a video API that allows businesses to video enable their websites.

Video Asset - The video content of a company, corporation or individual that can be utilized to create or maintain some sort of financial benefit.

Video Bookmark Service - These services allow users to manage bookmarks to multiple videos across the internet.

Video Compression - The process through which a video file is reduced in size for storing and streaming on the Web.

Video Ecommerce - Using a video as the means for creating an electronic monetary transaction. This can occur through the use of links in/on the video or the video player that take the user to a transaction website or that start the transaction process directly from the player.

Video Format - The file type of a video. Different video formats are used by different programs and/or operating systems. A few of the most popular formats for digital video are .avi (Microsoft), .mov (Quicktime), .wmv (Windows), and .flv (Flash)

Video Monetization - The process of adapting web video from a non-revenue generating asset into a revenue generating asset which integrates companies such as AOL, Revver, Brightroll, Metacafe, and DivX with a myriad of monetization tactics such as banner advertisements, direct sales of advertisement space, and web video rental or download fees. An essential step to successful web video marketing, businesses that fail to monetize web video often suffer a sharp decrease in ad revenue. Websites that do not generate revenue are often monetized via advertisements or subscriptions.

Video Montage - A video created from photos through the use of transitions, and voiceovers. This is similar to a photo slideshow but is different in that a video montage is more sophisticated.

Video Player - A media player used for the playback of digital videos from media including optical discs (DVD, VCD), and computer files

Video Publishing and Management Platform - A complex software system used to create, edit, host, play, manage, organize, publish, stream and distribute online video according to consistent rules. Video publishing and management platforms are frequently used for storing, controlling, versioning, publishing and distributing video assets of all types. The digital video content managed may include videos, pictures, ads, metadata and other Web content. A video publishing and management platform may support the following features: identification of all key users and their video management roles; the ability to assign roles and responsibilities to different video content categories or types; the ability to track, email, embed, edit, resize, stream and distribute multiple videos; the ability to publish video content in various formats and video players the ability to add advertising overlays, various types of Web content and track statistics of video usage

Video Search Engine Optimization (SEO) - Video Search Engine Optimization, process by which video search engines are optimized to search more effectively for specific content. SEOs like Truveo allow the user to search for particular videos more efficiently than typical search engines, allowing those who have marketed their videos over the web to reach a broader audience more easily.

Video Search Engines - User friendly search engines such as AOL, Yahoo, or Google that search the internet exclusively for web video. In addition to indexing metadata to allow for increased accessibility, and tracking, some Video Search Engines allow users to upload web video.

Video Sharing Networks - Internet websites such as YouTube and Veoh that allow web browsers to share web video content with other users. Video sharing networks greatly contribute to the success of viral marketing and web video marketing in general.

Video Size - The amount of hard drive storage space a video file takes up. Measured in bytes, kilobytes (1000 bytes), megabytes (1000 kilobytes), gigabytes (1000 megabytes), terabytes (1000 gigabytes), etc.

Video Takeover - When video content replaces a previous medium for conveying information. For example when a video interview replaces a written interview. This is a rapidly growing trend on the internet.

Viral Video - Video content which has become popular through online sharing via email, forums, blogs and other web sites.

Virtual Tour - An online tour of a business and its solutions. More successful virtual tours integrate graphics, animation, and spoken word often through the use of Adobe Flash, Java, and other programs. Virtual tours are the main components of Web Video Marketing.

Visits - A series of requests to a Web site from the same uniquely identified visitors with a set timeout. A visit is expected to contain multiple hits and page views.

Vlog (Video Blog) - A video enabled blog; users can post video entries which are presented in reverse chronological order. A typical vlog entry combines an embedded video or video link, along with supporting text and images.

VOD - Permits a customer to browse an online catalogue, to watch trailers and to then select a selected recording for playback


Web TV - see IPTV

Web Video Marketing - An innovative business strategy that employs the latest technology such as mobile devices and the most advanced internet resources including content delivery networks and microsites to provide superior service and comprehensive solutions to increase the operational efficiency of Customer Service, Media Communications, and Corporate Businesses. Web Video Marketing employs a variety of uses including Marketing Campaigns, Interviews, Testimonials, Virtual Tours, Case Studies, and Webinars. Regardless of the area and its applications, every business department can benefit from Web Video.

Webcam - (Abbreviation for Web Camera) A small camera connected to a computer, usually through a USB port. WebCams usually produce small, progressive-scanned images.

Webcast - A non-interactive, live broadcast over the web. An online distribution of audio and/or video to multiple viewers or listeners at the same time.

Widget - A standardized on-screen representation of a control that may be manipulated by the user. Scroll bars, buttons, and text boxes are all examples of widgets.


Zoom - Optical zoom relies on the camera's lens to bring the subject closer in the recorded video. Digital zoom does not use the lens, but rather enlarges a portion of the image digitally. While digital zoom can be more powerful than most optical zoom features, digital zoom may cause grainy images.


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